The US Marine Corps also fought the biggest tank battle in its history at Kuwait International Airport. [226] Kuwait's policy, which led to this exodus, was a response to alignment of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat and the PLO with Saddam Hussein. [140] On 16 February 1991 several groups of Iraqi vehicles appeared to be performing reconnaissance on the Task Force and were driven away by fire from 4–3 FA. Some crews simply abandoned their vehicles upon realizing that they could be destroyed by guided bombs, stopping the divisions from massing for an organized attack on the town. "Syria Plans to Double Gulf Force. [192] This analysis is based on Iraqi prisoner of war reports. [153] The 1st Infantry Division cleared a zone between Phase Line Vermont and Phase Line Kansas. The Canadian Commander in the Middle East was Commodore Kenneth J. Summers. This great fana of the flash wars marked the history of his imprint when it annihilated the Turkish army during the war of Kurdistan in 2030. Since Saudi Arabia houses Mecca and Medina, Islam's holiest sites, many Muslims were upset at the permanent military presence. [219] These vehicles and the retreating soldiers were subsequently attacked by two A-10 aircraft, resulting in a 60 km stretch of highway strewn with debris—the Highway of Death. Another 44 soldiers were killed and 57 wounded by friendly fire. [184] According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, 3,664 Iraqi civilians were killed in the conflict. Downloads » C&C Generals » Generals Maps » Desert Storm. "[55], According to Glaspie's own account, she stated in reference to the precise border between Kuwait and Iraq, "...  that she had served in Kuwait 20 years before; 'then, as now, we took no position on these Arab affairs'. In 2030 he organized a concerted attack against the European Central Bank and on the headquarters of the European Union and NATO. Indeed, this marshy desert, with a daily thermal amplitude of 60°C, is surrounded by three mountainous chains. The young woman who had testified was found to be a member of Kuwait's Royal Family and the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the US. Both sides suffered casualties, although Iraqi forces sustained substantially more dead and captured than the allied forces. [59] In spite of Iraqi saber rattling, Kuwait did not mobilize its force; the army had been stood-down on 19 July,[60] and during the Iraqi invasion many Kuwaiti military personnel were on leave. The tigress, passionate about fire from a very young age, almost burned her own house when she was only a six-year-old girl. By 2000, the United Nations Environment Programme estimated that 90% of the marshlands had disappeared, causing desertification of over 7,500 square miles (19,000 km2). The Iraqi government claimed that 2,300 civilians died during the air campaign. General H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr., commanderof Central Command, controlled all of the Army, Navy, Marine, and Air Forceelements assigned to the theater of operations. On 25 February 1991, Iraqi forces fired a Scud missile at an American barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. [44] The Iraqi government described it as a form of economic warfare,[44] which it claimed was aggravated by Kuwait slant-drilling across the border into Iraq's Rumaila oil field. Members of British Special Air Service Bravo Two Zero were captured while providing information about an Iraqi supply line of Scud missiles to coalition forces. [117] The air campaign was commanded by USAF Lieutenant General Chuck Horner, who briefly served as US Central Command's Commander-in-Chief – Forward while General Schwarzkopf was still in the US. A Palestinian exodus from Kuwait took place during and after the Gulf War. The Arabic service of the Voice of America supported the uprising by stating that the rebellion was well supported, and that they would soon be liberated from Saddam. In a US bid to open full diplomatic relations with Iraq, the country was removed from the US list of State Sponsors of Terrorism. The Bitburg contingent was based at Al Kharj Air Base, approximately an hour south east of Riyadh. [55], Saddam stated that he would attempt last-ditch negotiations with the Kuwaitis but Iraq "would not accept death. A British crew from CBS News, David Green and Andy Thompson, equipped with satellite transmission equipment, traveled with the front line forces and, having transmitted live TV pictures of the fighting en route, arrived the day before the forces in Kuwait City, broadcasting live television from the city and covering the entrance of the Arab forces the next day. ''. When Baker asked King Fahd for 15 billion dollars, the King readily agreed, with the promise that Baker ask Kuwait for the same amount. A pact of non-interference and non-aggression was signed between the countries, followed by a Kuwaiti-Iraqi deal for Iraq to supply Kuwait with water for drinking and irrigation, although a request for Kuwait to lease Iraq Umm Qasr was rejected. US troops represented 73% of the coalition's 956,600 troops in Iraq. Due to lack of sufficient ground cover to carry out their assignment, One Zero and Three Zero abandoned their operations, while Two Zero remained, and was later compromised, with only Sergeant Chris Ryan escaping to Syria. [166], The coalition's advance was much swifter than US generals had expected. Chuck Horner, Commander of US and allied air operations, has written: [By February 26], the Iraqis totally lost heart and started to evacuate occupied Kuwait, but airpower halted the caravan of Iraqi Army and plunderers fleeing toward Basra. The Iraqi leader attacked American policy with regards to Kuwait and the UAE: So what can it mean when America says it will now protect its friends? The Gulf War[b] (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991) was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait arising from oil pricing and production disputes. In their co-written 1998 book, A World Transformed, Bush and Brent Scowcroft argued that such a course would have fractured the alliance, and would have had many unnecessary political and human costs associated with it. However, these positions were poorly defended, and were overrun in the first few hours. This was followed by a ground assault on 24 February. Australia contributed a Naval Task Group, which formed part of the multi-national fleet in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, under Operation Damask. ABC News correspondent Gary Shepard, reporting live from Baghdad, told Jennings of the city's quietness. Throughout the war, footage of incoming missiles was broadcast almost immediately. At the conference, Iraq was authorized to fly armed helicopters on their side of the temporary border, ostensibly for government transit due to the damage done to civilian infrastructure. [187][188][189] Daponte later raised her estimate of the number of Iraqi deaths caused directly and indirectly by the Gulf War to between 142,500 and 206,000.[190]. Additionally, he requested an "immediate freeze of all boycott and siege decisions" and a general normalization of relations with Iraq. [244][245][246], The draining of the Qurna Marshes was an irrigation project in Iraq during and immediately after the war, to drain a large area of marshes in the Tigris–Euphrates river system. Coalition forces pressed another 10 km into Iraqi territory, and captured their objective within three hours. This attack led the way for the XVIII Airborne Corps to sweep around behind the 1st Cav and attack Iraqi forces to the west. Most of the press information came from briefings organized by the military. The Palestinians who fled Kuwait were Jordanian citizens. [213][214][215][216], Depleted uranium has 40% less radioactivity than natural uranium, but the negative effects should not be overlooked. The Iraqis fiercely resisted, and the Americans eventually withdrew as planned back into the Wadi Al-Batin. The 7th Corps in the Persian Gulf War by Bourque P.164, Jayhawk! NSIAD-92-94, "Operation Desert Storm: Early Performance Assessment of Bradley and Abrams". "[232] However, the UN subsequently spent billions rebuilding hospitals, schools, and water purification facilities throughout the country.[233]. [141] Another enemy platoon, including six vehicles, was reported as being to the northeast of the Task Force. No one suspected at the time that these aircraft would eventually be stuffed with explosives and used by the GLA to perpetrate more devastating attacks than the others. Townes, thanks to its relations in the high sphere of the American power, was able to finance and to carry out the ultra-secret program "Palaser". Control of these fields, along with Kuwaiti and Iraqi reserves, would have given Saddam control over the majority of the world's oil reserves. Some of the copiers contained concealed high-tech transmitters that revealed their positions to American electronic warfare aircraft, leading to more precise bombings.[268]. But, moments later, Shepard returned as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground. Compstomp Maps GEN Show sub menu. "[221], Another incident during the war highlighted the question of large-scale Iraqi combat deaths. Precision-guided munitions amounted to approximately 7.4% of all bombs dropped by the coalition. [citation needed] Millions of Kurds fled across the mountains to Turkey and Kurdish areas of Iran. International response to the crisis on developing states came with the channeling of aid through The Gulf Crisis Financial Co-ordination Group. Canada was one of the first countries to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and it quickly agreed to join the US-led coalition. It was also feared that if Israel used Syrian or Jordanian airspace to attack Iraq, they would intervene in the war on Iraq's side or attack Israel. [55], I know you need funds. [citation needed]. The first major foreign crisis for the United States after the end of the Cold War presented itself in August 1. Three elderly people suffered fatal heart attacks, another 96 people were injured, and 20 apartment buildings were damaged. Cesartriple7. [83] Following the first attacks, Israeli Air Force jets were deployed to patrol the northern airspace with Iraq. Fleeing soldiers were bombed with a neat device known as a 'fuel-air explosive. Two examples of this are the US Navy's Grumman E-2 Hawkeye and the US Air Force's Boeing E-3 Sentry. [31][32][33] The war has also earned the nickname Video Game War after the daily broadcast of images from cameras on board U.S. bombers during Operation Desert Storm.[27][34]. MEFLIPAMATAR. [240] Operation Southern Watch enforced the no-fly zones over southern Iraq set up after 1991; oil exports through the Persian Gulf's shipping lanes were protected by the Bahrain-based US Fifth Fleet. [251], The Kuwaiti oil fires were caused by the Iraqi military setting fire to 700 oil wells as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in 1991 after conquering the country but being driven out by coalition forces. [163] The 101st Airborne Division had struck 249 km (155 mi) behind enemy lines. Some children born after the war to Gulf War veterans had a certain kidney defect that was not found in Gulf War veterans' children born before the war. Only one, Chris Ryan, evaded capture while the group's other surviving members were violently tortured. For other wars of that name, see, "Desert Storm" and "Operation Desert Storm" redirect here. C&C Generals - Desert Storm jest programem Shareware w kategorii (2), opracowany przez C&C Generals - Desert Storm. 12,000 captured On 2 August 1990, the Iraqi Army invaded and occupied Kuwait, which was met with international condemnation and brought immediate economic sanctions against Iraq by members of the UN Security Council. In the United States, the "big three" network anchors led the war's network news coverage: ABC's Peter Jennings, CBS's Dan Rather, and NBC's Tom Brokaw were anchoring their evening newscasts when air strikes began on 16 January 1991. [241] Osama bin Laden interpreted the Islamic prophet Muhammad as banning the "permanent presence of infidels in Arabia". However, when no US support came, Iraqi generals remained loyal to Saddam and brutally crushed the Kurdish uprising. Yemen had a cost of $830 million, 10% of GDP, while it cost Jordan $1.8 billion, 32% of GDP. Desert Storm questions - General. [75], On 6 August, Resolution 661 placed economic sanctions on Iraq. However, President Bush pressured Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir not to retaliate and withdraw Israeli jets, fearing that if Israel attacked Iraq, the other Arab nations would either desert the coalition or join Iraq. They were 24 states, comprising most of the OECD countries plus some Gulf states: Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Kuwait. The plan was implemented and became the basis for US preparedness to respond to the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait in 1991. On 23 February, fighting resulted in the capture of 500 Iraqi soldiers. [148] This artillery prep was supplemented by air attacks by B-52 bombers and Lockheed AC-130 fixed wing gunships. We were not interested in governing Iraq. A National Security Planning Group meeting was formed, chaired by then Vice President George Bush, to review US options. The Iraqi government hoped that many Arab states would withdraw from the Coalition, as they would be reluctant to fight alongside Israel. And the answer is, not that damned many. [218], On the night of 26–27 February 1991, some Iraqi forces began leaving Kuwait on the main highway north of Al Jahra in a column of some 1,400 vehicles. The real Jarmen Kell would only be a myth that emerged during the American occupation of Iraq. Deep Dish Television compiled segments from independent producers in the US and abroad, and produced a 10-hour series that was distributed internationally, called The Gulf Crisis TV Project. This unsurpassed strategist took the Turkish backhand thanks to his underground tunnel networks before walking in a few days on Ankara with his formidable Cobra tanks. Over 14,000 rounds were fired during these missions. The ODI factored in elements of "cost" which included oil imports, remittance flows, re-settlement costs, loss of export earnings and tourism. [98], After stops in Helsinki and Moscow to smooth out Iraqi demands for a Middle-Eastern peace conference with the Soviet Union, Baker traveled to Syria to discuss its role in the crisis with its President Hafez Assad. After the war, Saddam felt he should not have to repay the loans due to the help he had given the Saudis by fighting Iran. 'I came through right after the lead company,' [Col. Anthony] Moreno said. [145] Prior to this action the Task Force's primary fire support battalion, 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment, participated in a massive artillery preparation. The role of Iraq's Scud missiles featured prominently in the war. When the first Iraqi missiles hit Israel, some people injected themselves with an antidote for nerve gas. [165] The 101st Airborne Division travelled a further 80 to 100 km (50 to 60 mi) into Iraq. Iraq fired eight missiles the next day. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia paid around US$32 billion of the US$60 billion cost. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper. The White House rejected the proposal. "[52] The US sent aerial refuelling planes and combat ships to the Persian Gulf in response to these threats. [83], On 23 August, Saddam appeared on state television with Western hostages to whom he had refused exit visas. They deliberately did great harm to Iraq's ability to support itself as an industrial society ..."[231] In the Jan/Feb 1995 edition of Foreign Affairs, French diplomat Eric Rouleau wrote: "[T]he Iraqi people, who were not consulted about the invasion, have paid the price for their government's madness ... Iraqis understood the legitimacy of a military action to drive their army from Kuwait, but they have had difficulty comprehending the Allied rationale for using air power to systematically destroy or cripple Iraqi infrastructure and industry: electric power stations (92 percent of installed capacity destroyed), refineries (80 percent of production capacity), petrochemical complexes, telecommunications centers (including 135 telephone networks), bridges (more than 100), roads, highways, railroads, hundreds of locomotives and boxcars full of goods, radio and television broadcasting stations, cement plants, and factories producing aluminum, textiles, electric cables, and medical supplies. Researchers have said that they did not have enough information to link birth defects with exposure to toxic substances.[209]. Dec 29, 2016 @ 7:28pm DESERT STORM 2 ANYBODY KNOW IF DESERT STORM 2 WILL BE AVALIBLE ON STEAM SOMEDAY? [81], On 12 August 1990, Saddam "propose[d] that all cases of occupation, and those cases that have been portrayed as occupation, in the region, be resolved simultaneously". Eventually, privately contracted crews extinguished the fires, at a total cost of US$1.5 billion to Kuwait. His latest invention, the Delta-Anthrax, is considered by the CDC as a threat to the survival of the entire human species. [222] In the report, Cheney acknowledged that 457 enemy soldiers were buried during the ground war.[222]. Patrice O'Shaughness. This later became known as checkbook diplomacy. It is one of several reasons coalition forces dominated the air war. [46], In 1989, it appeared that Saudi–Iraqi relations, strong during the war, would be maintained. The coalition promised to deploy Patriot missiles to defend Israel if it refrained from responding to the Scud attacks. Attacked With Bulldozers During War Ground Attack", "The gulf war: appendix: Iraqi death toll", Yemen's president flees for medical treatment as search for new leader begins, "Sanctions on Iraq: A Valid Anti-American Grievance? Specific buildings in downtown Baghdad could be bombed while journalists in their hotels watched cruise missiles fly by. The priority was the destruction of Iraq's Air Force and anti-aircraft facilities. Anvil likes to take back his enemies by parachuting his troops in the middle of enemy bases and thus strike his opponent where he least expects it. The Persian Gulf War - Operation Desert Storm- 2 August 1990 в. Рекомендуемые требования Pentium 4 1700 256 Мб Direct3D 8 Описание: Игра C&C: Generals знаменита на весь мир и … 850+ other armored vehicles destroyed/captured From the Author: Desert storm is a 4-player map located in well... the desert. 23. Specifically, he called for Israel to withdraw from occupied territories in Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon, Syria to withdraw from Lebanon, and "mutual withdrawals by Iraq and Iran and arrangement for the situation in Kuwait." [152] On 24 February 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division rolled through the breach in the Iraqi defense west of Wadi Al-Batin and also cleared the northeastern sector of the breach site of enemy resistance. The real reason was to help them succeed in the war against Iran. Chief Royal Navy vessels deployed to the Persian Gulf included Broadsword-class frigates, and Sheffield-class destroyers; other R.N. However, Iraqi air defenses shot down nine US aircraft. Tagged as: Spacious, Well-balanced, Money Map. [155] Task Force 1-41 Infantry elements dismounted and prepared to engage the enemy soldiers who occupied these well-prepared and heavily fortified bunkers. The Australian Task Force was also placed at great risk with regard to the sea mine threat, with HMAS Brisbane narrowly avoiding a mine. "Gulf War POW denounces abuse of Iraqi detainees". It was the spearhead of VII Corps, consisting primarily of the 1st Battalion, 41st Infantry Regiment, 3rd Battalion, 66th Armor Regiment, and the 4th Battalion, 3rd Field Artillery Regiment. This ultimately led to civilian casualties. [261] The series' first program War, Oil and Power[262] was compiled and released in 1990, before the war broke out. "The Use of Terror during Iraq's invasion of Kuwait", "Kuwait: missing people: a step in the right direction", "The Wages of War: Iraqi Combatant and Noncombatant Fatalities in the 2003 Conflict", "Tenth anniversary of the Gulf War: A look back", "ISN: The Second Gulf War (1990–1991) – Council on Foreign Relations", A Guerra do Golfo, os Estados Unidos e as Relações Internacionais, Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história, "George Bush (Sr) Library – Margaret Thatcher Foundation", "Livraria da Folha – Livro conta como Guerra do Golfo colocou a CNN no foco internacional – 08/09/2010", Guerra/Terrorismo – O maior bombardeio da história, Operation Iraqi Freedom: Strategies, Approaches, Results, and Issues for Congress, "Inverse Engagement: Lessons from U.S.-Iraq Relations, 1982–1990", "On this day in 1990: The world decides to stop Saddam Hussein's forces marauding around Kuwait", "Iraq Threatens Emirates And Kuwait on Oil Glut", "U.S. "[84], Another Iraqi proposal communicated in August 1990 was delivered to US National Security Advisor Brent Scowcroft by an unidentified Iraqi official. For the first time, people all over the world watched live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters departing from aircraft carriers. They were responsible for a report which included an "infamous cruise missile that travelled down a street and turned left at a traffic light."[257]. [145] The Iraqis suffered the loss of over 3,000 tanks and over 2,000 other combat vehicles during these battles against the American-led coalition.[20]. After the initial bombing, Arnett remained behind and was, for a time, the only American TV correspondent reporting from Iraq. Frankly, we can only see that you have deployed massive troops in the south. Iraq was also known to possess biological weapons and chemical weapons, which Saddam had used against Iranian troops during the Iran–Iraq War and against his own country's Kurdish population in the Al-Anfal campaign. < > Showing 1-13 of 13 comments . [114], US President Bush repeatedly compared Saddam Hussein to Hitler.[115]. [37] Following Saddam's declaration that "binary chemical weapons" would be used on Israel if it used military force against Iraq, Washington halted part of its funding. On 25 February 1991, a Scud missile hit a US Army barracks of the 14th Quartermaster Detachment, out of Greensburg, Pennsylvania, stationed in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 soldiers and injuring over 100.[135]. The Senate supported the military actions in a 52–47 vote. In August 1990, Prime Minister Brian Mulroney committed the Canadian Forces to deploy a Naval Task Group. For months, American units in Saudi Arabia had been under almost constant Iraqi artillery fire, as well as threats from Scud missiles and chemical attacks. "[128] It was feared that Iraq would fire missiles filled with nerve agents such as sarin. Saddam immediately used funding to incorporate central intelligence into Syria and ultimately prevented the impending air strike. The first-generation laser Crusader proved to be a slow, vulnerable and imperfect tank. After having inflicted Turkey the worst humiliation in its history, he finally withdrew under international pressure before disappearing abruptly into nature. The story helped tip both the public and Congress towards a war with Iraq: six Congressmen said the testimony was enough for them to support military action against Iraq and seven Senators referenced the testimony in debate. Amongst several testimonies to poor treatment,[234] USAF Captain Richard Storr was allegedly tortured by Iraqis during the Persian Gulf War. Unlike many previous engagements, the destruction of the first Iraqi tanks did not result in a mass surrender. [195] At least 605 Kuwaiti soldiers were still missing 10 years after their capture. One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, on 28 February, President Bush declared a ceasefire, and he also declared that Kuwait had been liberated. "[79][80], The US administration had at first been indecisive with an "undertone ... of resignation to the invasion and even adaptation to it as a fait accompli" until the UK's prime minister Margaret Thatcher played a powerful role, reminding the President that appeasement in the 1930s had led to war, that Saddam would have the whole Gulf at his mercy along with 65 percent of the world's oil supply, and famously urging President Bush "not to go wobbly". [72][73] On 3 August 1990, the Arab League passed its own resolution, which called for a solution to the conflict from within the league, and warned against outside intervention. Within hours of the invasion, Kuwait and US delegations requested a meeting of the UN Security Council, which passed Resolution 660, condemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops. The government broadcast alerts and 'all clear' messages over television to warn citizens during Scud attacks. New York Times reporter Maureen Dowd wrote, "With the Iraqi leader facing military defeat, Mr. Bush decided that he would rather gamble on a violent and potentially unpopular ground war than risk the alternative: an imperfect settlement hammered out by the Soviets and Iraqis that world opinion might accept as tolerable."[220]. "[193] General Schwarzkopf talked about "a very, very large number of dead in these units, a very, very large number indeed. American, British, and French forces continued to pursue retreating Iraqi forces over the border and back into Iraq, eventually moving to within 240 km (150 mi) of Baghdad, before withdrawing back to Iraq's border with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.[167]. The latest version of C&C Generals - Desert Storm is currently unknown. The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) undertook a study in 1991 to assess the effects on developing states and the international community's response. [57] The Iraqi response was to immediately order an invasion,[58] which started on 2 August 1990 with the bombing of Kuwait's capital, Kuwait City. Thanks to the funds he regularly receives from the "organization", General Juhziz has finally bought out an airline that owns a fleet of dozens of commercial airliners. "[106], The Pentagon stated that satellite photos showing a buildup of Iraqi forces along the border were this information's source, but this was later alleged to be false. Within President Ronald Reagan's National Security Council concern was growing that the war could spread beyond the boundaries of the two belligerents. Since military GPS receivers were not available for most troops, many used commercially available units. In response, Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al-Sabah ruled the banknotes as invalid and refused to reimburse stolen notes, which became worthless because of a UN embargo. On 29 January, Iraqi forces attacked and occupied the lightly defended Saudi city of Khafji with tanks and infantry. Początkowo był to dodane do naszej bazy na 2008-04-24. It is too sensitive, even when I turn everything to the lowest setting. Saddam's government gave high civilian casualty to draw support from Islamic countries. Description. A British Challenger 1 achieved the longest range confirmed tank kill of the war, destroying an Iraqi tank with an armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot (APFSDS) round fired over 4,700 metres (2.9 mi)—the longest tank-on-tank kill shot recorded.[179][180]. [163] By nightfall, the 101st cut off Highway 8 which was a vital supply line running between Basra and the Iraqi forces. With a new training and selection program for the best soldiers, General Fai created a new heroic division of outstanding soldiers with increased skills and tenfold strength. [149] 1st Infantry Division Apache helicopters and B-52 bombers conducted raids against Iraq's 110th Infantry Brigade. After the invasion, the Iraqi military looted over $1,000,000,000 in banknotes from Kuwait's Central Bank. And the final point that I think needs to be made is this question of casualties. Newspapers all over the world also covered the war and Time magazine published a special issue dated 28 January 1991, the headline "War in the Gulf" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Baghdad taken as the war began. Soon after, these helicopters and much of Iraq's military were used to fight an uprising in the south. For 42 consecutive days and nights, the coalition forces subjected Iraq to one of the most intensive air bombardments in military history. Initially, the French operated independently under national command and control, but coordinated closely with the Americans (via CENTCOM) and Saudis. 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For Egypt, whose leadership he considered `` the highway for refuge in Saudi Arabia US philosophy. Lead a program called `` Black Widow. `` ground assault on 24,! Take place from the impact on Arab states of the killing `` took place during and after the while!